United Nations Organisation
- The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international co-operation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict. At its founding, the UNO had 51 member states ( Representing 2/3rd of the world population); there are now 193 members and 2 observer states Vatican City State and State of Palestine.
- The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna.
- The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world.
- The Charter of the UNO was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945.
- Its unique international character, the United Nations can take action on the issues confronting humanity in the 21st century, such as peace and security, climate change, sustainable development, human rights, disarmament, terrorism, humanitarian and health emergencies, gender equality, governance, food production, and more.
- The name United Nations was given at the instance of US President Roosevelt.
- The Constitution was formed at Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference by USSR, UK, US and China.
- First regular session was held in London in Jan, 1946 and Trygve Le (Norway) was elected the first Secretary General.
- Flag : White UN emblem (2 bent olive branches open at the top, and in between them is the map of the world) on a light blue background. It was adopted on Oct 20, 1947. The UN Flag is not to be subordinated to any other flag in the world.
- The official languages of the UN are French, Russian, English, Chinese, Arabic and Spanish, while the working languages are English and French only. (Short Tricks to Remember – FRECA)
- New members are admitted to the General Assembly on the recommendations of the Security Council and two thirds of the members of the General Assembly should vote in favor.
Organs of The United Nations
There are six principal bodies of the UN :
- General Assembly
- Security Council
- Economic and Social Council
- International Court of Justice
- Trusteeship Council
- The General Assembly is the main deliberative, policy making and representative organ of the UN.
- All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly, making it the only UN body with universal representation.
- Each year, in September, the full UN membership meets in the General Assembly Hall in New York for the annual General Assembly session, and general debate, which many heads of state attend and address.
- Decisions on important questions, such as those on peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters, require a two-thirds majority of the General Assembly.
- Decisions on other questions are by simple majority.
- The General Assembly, each year, elects a GA President to serve a one-year term of office
- It consists of all members states of the UN. Each member nations can send five delegates but each nation has only one vote.
- The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the UN Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security.
- It has 15 Members (5 permanent and 10 non-permanent members). Each Member has one vote. China, France, Russia, UK and USA are the permanent members.
- The non-permanent members are elected by the General Assembly for 2 years from among the member states.
- The permanent members of the security council have got veto power. Any matter supported by the majority of the members fails to be carried through if negative vote is cast by any of the permanent members.
- Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
- It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.
- The Security Council has a Presidency, which rotates, and changes, every month.
Economic and Social Council
- The Economic and Social Council is the principal body for coordination, policy review, policy dialogue and recommendations on economic, social and environmental issues, as well as implementation of internationally agreed development goals.
- It serves as the central mechanism for activities of the UN system and its specialized agencies in the economic, social and environmental fields, supervising subsidiary and expert bodies.
- This bodies or organ of the UN Consists of 54 representatives of the members countries elected by a two third majorities of the General Assembly.
- Its main function is to achieve international co-operation by solving problems of economic , social , cultural and humanitarians character.
- 1/3rd of this council is elected every year for the period of 3 years and equal numbers retire annually.
- It is the United Nations’ central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development.
International Court of Justice
- It is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
- The headquarters of the International court of justice is at the Hague (Netherlands).
- The court consists of 15 judges. The judges of the court are elected by the General Assembly along with the security council for a nine year term.
- Sir Benegal Narsingh Rau,Who was also an adviser to the Indian constituent assembly,was the first Indian permanent judge to International court of justice.
- Second one was Justice Nagendra singh who entered into his office as judge of the international court of justice in 1973 and completed his first term of nine years in 1982.He was again appointed as a judge for next term of nine years ,which was due to in 1991.But he died in the mean time in December 1988.In between he was also the President of the ICJ from 1985–88.He died in the office leaving his term due of the judgeship.
- So later in his place Justice Raghunandan Swarup Pathak was recommended for the post of judge in the ICJ from India to complete the remaining term of Nagendra Singh.( 1989–1991).
- After him it is Justice Dalveer Bhandari who is presently a judge in the supreme court.And it is good to be said that he has got another nine years due to his reelection and thus a second term as a judge at the ICJ.(2012–18)
- This organ consists of 14 members out of which five are the permanent members of the security council.
- The function of this organ is to provide for an international trusteeship system to safeguard the interests of inhabitants of territories which are not yet fully self governing and which may be placed there under by individual agreements.
- This organ of the United Nations is the chief administrative office which coordinates and supervises the activities of the U.N.
- This secretariat is headed by a Secretary General who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.
- Secretary-General of the U.N. is elected for five years and eligible for re-election.